The unsteady flow of generalized hybrid nanofluids: applications in cementitious materials

Since the introduction of reinforced concrete as a structural material, the construction industry has made remarkable progress. The addition of nanoparticles will result in a stronger, more durable, self-healing, fire-resistant, easy to clean, and rapid compaction of the cementitious material. Some of the nanoparticles that could be used for these features are nano silica, aluminum oxide, nanostructured metals, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). In this article, the mathematical problem is modeled for hybrid nanofluids and generalized by using the concept of Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives, and its application in the cementitious materials is studied theoretically. The problem is solved using the Laplace transform technique. The results show that by adding the Al 2 O 3  nanoparticles and MWCNTs, the binding strength of the cement may be enhanced. Moreover, the effects of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles and MWCNTs are also discussed separately. Graphs are drawn for different volume fractions of nanoparticles and MWCNTs and discussed physically.