Concept Papers

  • SMART COMMUNICATOR

    Communication has become a major part of our lives. Getting access to information and then manipulating that information is a pretty common feat these days, but they all require either the use of the Internet or Data Networks. To negate the necessity of having an internet connection at all times to access your personal data or manipulate it, we have developed an Android application which can not only let you access the data from one device through the other but also let you control it and share files, images, and videos among devices as well with authentication capabilities through the technology of SMS and Wi-Fi Direct.

  • Fortunate Eyes: A Case Study on Usability Enhancement of Mobile Applications for Visually Impaired Individuals

    According to the World Health Organization estimations in 2015, 36 million individuals suffer from total vision loss while 216.6 million individuals suffer from moderate to severe vision loss around the globe. As a result of their impairment, they undergo hurdles to live a normal life which can be a real struggle with emotions and may lead to depression and frustration. This large number of visually impaired individuals in society motivated research groups to search for smart solutions that use vision-based technologies to improve their quality of life. This piece of work presents the work done for visually impaired individuals with both partial and total loss. Bifold problems had been identified and tackled for the visually impaired 3 community. First to develop a smart compact solution for major problems such as to identify and recognize the text, objects, obstacles, emotions, age, gender of other humans and to track their current location. A decent number of solutions had been developed for the problems identified but after acute observation of the work two shortcomings had been identified in the developed solutions. The first problem was that the stated features were in many different applications rather than under the umbrella of one compact application and meanwhile some needs expansive external hardware. The second problem under consideration was to develop a user interface to enhancing usability and better performance. For both the above-stated problems Fortunate Eyes had been proposed. It is a vision-based Android application with a usability satisfying the ISO-9241-11 standard. Fortunate Eyes had been tested in real time, the results obtained are quite reassuring as the application is performing way better than other applications in terms of usability and accessibility in a controlled environment.

  • All Ears: A Threat Alert System and Discourse Assistant for Hearing Impaired

    The perspective of hearing impaired or deaf persons towards the world differs from normal individuals to a large extent. The absence of hearing ability not only makes life difficult, but can even result in unavoidable fatal accidents. The advancement in information technology is changing the lifestyle of people. The ease it provides is beneficial for almost every community. However, no concrete solution has been developed for the deaf individuals. That being said, current solutions lack the element of usability and fail to provide a complete package. This work focuses on hearing impaired individuals and the role of speech in communication. The study addresses two major problems faced by deaf community. First one is unawareness of the environmental sounds and threats, and the second involves the absence of dialogue communication. The absence of hearing ability causes the deaf individuals to poorly perceive their surroundings. Hence in case of a harmful situation that could be avoided by first perceiving it through sound, would not be avoided by the deaf individuals. Similarly, face to face dialogue plays an important role in communication. From school kids to corporate businessmen, everyone communicates by exchange of words. Imagine a business meeting scenario where the executives of an organization are stuck on a problem. The solution clicks to a deaf individual who is performing activities that does not require him to speak much. It would be very difficult for such a person to quickly convey his message. The developed solution of this work relies on an Android-based application that allows the hearing-impaired individuals to be better aware of the environment and have dialogue communication just like normal individuals. The User Interface (UI) of the application has been designed by making use of certain standards and after development; usability engineering is performed to make sure that the developed interface produces positive results. The experimental results from actual users imply that the application developed can positively aid hearing impaired in assessing the environmental threats and have successful dialogue communication in a controlled environment. The work aims to provide a guideline for the development of solutions for deaf individuals.

  • A dynamical model of asymptomatic carrier zika virus with optimal control strategies

    A dynamical model of asymptomatic carrier zika virus model with optimal control strategies is presented. The basic model zika without control and basic mathematical results are obtained. The stability results for the zika model without controls are obtained when the basic reproduction number is less than unity at the disease-free case. We show that the zika model without controls is locally and globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number is less than 1. Further, we show the model stability at the endemic equilibrium and present that the model at the endemic equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable when R0>1. Further, for the case when R0=1, we analyze the model and presents its backward bifurcation, and it may have the phenomena of backward bifurcation if the conditions provided is satisfied. After that we chose the appropriate controls for the zika virus eliminations and formulated the zika control model. These controls are the preventions through bednets, the treatment of the infected individuals due to zika virus infection, and the insecticides spraying on mosquitoes. With these controls, the model and the optimal controls characterizations are obtained. Furthermore, we provided the existence of optimal control problem. The model with controls and the model without controls are solved numerically by using backward Runge-Kutta method and obtain the graphical results. The graphical results are obtained by setting appropriate set of controls and the associated results are shown. We show that each strategy has its own importance for the elimination of zika virus infection, but we suggest based on the numerical results that the uses of bednets as a prevention from the zika mosquitoes, the treatment of individuals infected through zika mosquitoes and the insecticides spraying on mosquitoes could be more useful for the elimination of zika virus infection from the community. With this new idea of asymptotic carrier class, the results provided in the present paper would be more useful for public health department and other health agencies to reduce the burden of zika virus infection from the community.

  • Flow of magnetic particles in blood with isothermal heating: A fractional model for two-phase flow

    In the sixteenth century, medical specialists were of the conclusion that magnet can be utilized for the treatment or wipe out the illnesses from the body. On this basis, the research on magnet advances day by day for the treatment of different types of diseases in mankind. This study aims to investigate the effect of magnetic field and their applications in human body specifically in blood. Blood is a non-Newtonian fluid because its viscosity depends strongly on the fraction of volume occupied by red cells also called the hematocrit. Therefore, in this paper blood is considered as an example of non-Newtonian Casson fluid. The blood flow is considered in a vertical cylinder together with heat transfer due to mixed conviction caused by buoyancy force and the external pressure gradient. Effect of magnetic field on the velocities of blood and magnetic particles is also considered. The problem is modelled using the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative approach. The governing fractional partial differential equations are solved using Laplace and Hankel transformation techniques and exact solutions are obtained. Effects of different parameters such as Grashof number, Prandtl number, Casson fluid parameter and fractional parameters, and magnetic field are shown graphically. Both velocity profiles increase with the increase of Grashoff number and Casson fluid parameter and reduce with the increase of magnetic field.

  • A Real Change For Real: Developing Government, Industry and Academia Linkages in Pakistan

    The increasing race in technology, industry and businesses is compelling institutions to find alternatives and effective ways of research for commercial use. This debate begins with an assumption that the universities will command the scientific and technological research resources. The research work will be taken up by the industry and converted into products and services. Whereas, the industry will also address the concerns of the academia. As a nation, we strongly believe that the higher education cannot operate in isolation on islands of knowledge; it has no value unless it is dispensed and concentrated on the current and future needs. For this reason, the knowledge-islands need to be connected to the cluster of businesses and industries.
    Purpose
    The purpose of this proposal is to understand:
    How knowledge integrated community can be developed for context and result driven researches?
    How government can support this KIC programmes at National and Provincial level for context and result driven researches?
    Comparison of Pakistan with other Asian countries
    Pakistan has been known as exporter of agricultural products. In addition to it, leather and textile is also a major export contributor in the GDP. Whereas the industrial sector is way behind
    because of unavailability of skilled work force and infrastructure. The public and private sector are having poor research and development centers and they lack in academia linkages. Korea and Singapore have emerged as a developed countries have ensured the academic support to the industrial sector. This support help in the excellence in their production and exports and to lead with their counter parts. Thailand have emerged as a developed nation. This revival is because of explicitly focusing on the academia-industry linkages. Similarly there 66 initiatives in fabric design, dyeing & printing, supply chain management and IT is a product of universities interm of their research and development projects. China among their other Asian countries, have strongly focused on academia and industry linkage strategy. China being the second largest nation in the world has accelerated its growth is last two decades. It is not only because of linking academia and industry but the mutual setting of aligning results with progress and reforms which leads to boom in china economy. Singapore and Malaysia have realized the significance of academia-industry linkages. Singapore was considered as developed state by 1990's. However, they bridged the gap between academia and industry before a decade. Malaysia development is different as compared to Singapore but they are ahead of Pakistan interms of academia-industry linkages. Malaysia

  • Converting Big Data into Value Creation

    Usually exchange of ideas bring a new concept to form.Big data was initially originated on lunch table conversation at silicon graphics Inc. in the mid-1990's.The term widespread as recently as in 2011."Small and midsize companies in developed companies look to make big gains with big data," 2012. Size is the first characteristic of big data. However, other characteristics includes the three V's, Volume, Variety and Velocity (Laney, 2001; Kwon, Lee, & Shin, 2014). "Big data is high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets that demand cost- effective, innovative forms of information processing for enhanced insight and decision making." (Gartner IT Glossary, n.d.).
    Recently, in addition to the three V's, other dimensions of big data have also emerged which includes Veracity, Variability and Value. There is no benchmark set for volume, variety and velocity that defines big data. The limits totally depends upon the sector, size and location of the institution and these limits evolve and change over the time.A very important fact is that these dimensions are not independent of each other. If one increases other will also automatically increase.
    Big data in a vacuum is worthless. Its potential is unleashed when it is used to support decision formulation. It is about collecting and interrogate complete datasets to generate objective patterns and impression out of it. New correlations and conclusion can be established in the sea of data. Big data won't oppress creativity and innovation but it will find surprising uses of it. For instance, in banking, number of cards swipes, and number of times a card swiped can help to determine the behavior of the customers. Sentiment analysis, spending behavior of customer, main channels of transactions, customer segmentation, Fraud management and prevention, risk assessment and reporting can be done with help of big data. There are many other correlations which can be found in future to support the industry. Big data starts with the explosion of data that we have generated. These explosion leads to design and patterns where new opportunities are generated out of these patterns. These patterns need to be very imaginative to compete with the challenges the country is facing. Henry ford
    asked the public what they wanted, and they demanded faster horses. He was imaginative enough to convert those fast horses into automobiles. Such imaginative contributions are required to flourish the country. Global indices can help to identify the potential areas where the efforts can be put in and the scope is broader.

  • Evaluation of Mineral Grinding Waste

    In the industrial estate where lot of industries, mineral spread dust particles in the open environment. The dust particles are called waste or the fly ash. For economic and environmental aspect the industrial waste reuse is appreciable contamination is the major issue of environment. This study was under taken to the mechanical use fly ash as partial replacement of other produce and et of building ------- as partial replacement for fine aggregates in cement mortar at various percentages by weight of the cement and fine aggregate) with water. An experimental investigation for the measurement of consistency, initial setting time and final setting time of cement with fins dust ash replacement were determined. Consistency of dust (Workability) called fly ash and waste of mineral dust replacement was determined by using flow table test. Cubes of the samples with fly ash dust content and waste marble dust replacement as to determine the compressive strength of hardened cement mortar. The test results showed that addition of dust ash and waste marble dust into cement mortar mixture significantly increased its compressive strength, initial setting time, final setting time and consistency of cement mortar, while consistency of cement was decreased as compared to conventional. This study relates that reusing of dust of minerals ash and waste marble dust as substitutes in gives a alternate use of mineral dust approach.

  • Newtonian, Non-Newtonian and Nanofluids: Generalized Models

    Due to the significant role in industry and engineering, it is very important to study the flow behavior of Newtonian, non-Newtonian and nanofluids. The study of MHD flow of Newtonian, non-Newtonian and nanofluids in a porous medium with and without combined effects of heat and mass transfer are improtant areas. The customary models of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids via fractional calculus may be generalized using the concepts of fractional deravivatives. This reseaech will cover various flow regimes and their solutions, including, Newtonian, non-Newtonian and nanofluids via integral transforms and numerical schemes.
    Suggestions
    1. Mathematicsl Modelling
    2. Generalization of the Models
    3. Applications to Real World problems.
    4. Solutions of the Problems

  • Pine Wilt Disease

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a pine tree disease that caused by pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. It is considered a dramatic disease because it kills affected trees within a few week to a few month. The vector for the pine wild trees is pine sawyer beetle (or Monochamus alternatus). This pine wood disease caused by the pinewood nematode was firstly investigated in 1905 in Japan. In 1980s, the pine wilt disease epidemic had spread to other Asian countries, such as Honk Kong, Korea, China and Taiwan. In 1999, PWD reached to Portugal. The first observable symptom is the lack of resin exudation (the abundant flow of resin from coniferous trees) from bark wounds. The foliage then becomes pale green, then yellow, and finally reddish brown as the tree succumbs to the disease. One occurs during maturation feeding, when the nematode is transferred from insect vectors to healthy pine trees via the insect feeding on wounds. The second occurs during oviposition of the mature female on dead, dying, or recently cut pine trees via the oviposition wounds. The third occurs during mating, that is, as mature males search for females in bark wounds, such as the oviposition wounds. This is referred to as horizontal transmission.
    Suggestions
    A mathematical model for the spread of pine wilt disease with variable population size
    The model is locally as well as globally asymptotically stable.
    Formulation of an optimal control problem
    Control strategies
    Tree injection, deforestation, and aerial insecticide spraying

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